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Gasherbrum II Feng Berg

At 76.7 0E and 35.7 0N, Gasherburm II Feng of 8028 meters above sea level, is located on the main ridge line of Karakorum Shan and is the fourth highest peak in Karakorum Shan Range and the thirteenth highest peak in Karakorum Shan Range and the thirteenth highest peak in the world. About 21 kilometers southeast of Qogir Feng as the crow flies, it rides on the boundary between China and Kashmir Area (actually controlled by Pak-istan).

Gasherbrum II Feng contains 4 major ridges: the Northwest Ridge, the Southeast Ridge, the East Ridge and the Southwest Ridge, among which the Northwest and East Ridge are on the main ridge line of Krarkorum Shan Range, with the northside in China. The tall and giant Gasherbrum II Feng has charac-teristics of precipitous ravines and valleys while the summit appears just like a giant Pyramid, with the steep slope walls covered by snow. The terrain on the side, however, is even more steep and complicated and frequented by snow avalanches, making it difficult to reach. No success has yet been achieved in conquering the summit on the Chinese side. Three Austrians, Fritz•Moravec, H•Willen part, S•Larch, were the first to surmount the summit along the southwest ridge (part of Kashmir Area) on July 1, 1956.

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Gasherbrum Feng Berg

 

At 76.7 0E and 35.7 0N, Gasherbrum Shan of 8080 meters in height stands on the main ridge line of Karakorum Shan and is listed as the second heightest peak in the world. Twenty-six kilometers southeast of Qogir Feng is the bound-ary between China and Kashmir Area (actually controlled by Pakistan)

 

“Gasherbrum”, meaning “the shining mountain ridge with brilliant rays”, is made up of 6 ridges: the Northwest Ridge and the East Ridge. The peak side being tall and vast and with its precipitous ravinse, Gasherbrum Shan, the main peak, looks just like a giantic pyramid. In the steep valley on the east slope are Aluerqin Glacier and Derduke Glacier, which has many open and hidden crevasses, deep, large and crisscrossing.

 

Similar in climsate to Qogir Feng area, Gasherbrum Shan area enjoys roughly the same route line leading to the mountain as that of Qogir Feng. Tramp over Agele Daban, and you will get into Karaqin River valley. Finally, it takes 50 kilometers to walk east, turn southeast and reach the 4250-meter Bulake mountaineering base camp site.

 

On July 4, 1958, two persons from the American Mountaineering Team, Peter and A•J•Kauffman, made the first cuccessful ascent of the summit. But due to the complicated and steep terrain on the Chinese side, ice and snow avalanches often occur and nobody has yet made it on the east slope.

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Xuelian Feng Berg

At 80.9 0E and 42.3 0N, Xuelian Feng, measuring 6624 meters above sea level, lies in Wensu County of Xinjiang, 66 kilometers to the mortheast of Tomür Feng – the highest beak in the part of Tian Shan in China.

Three ridge dwell in Xue lian Feng: the Southwest Ridge, the North Ridge, the East-west Ridge, on which stand many peaks of aBbove 6000 meters in height. To the west of Xuelian Feng is Aketasi Feng at an altitude of 6433 me-ters, which is only 6 kilometers away from it. Linked to each other, the two peaks look so much alike as to be just like twin sisters.

Viewed from afar and capped in a vast expanse of white snow all the year round, Xuelian Feng appears right to be a snow-lotus in full bloom. Tall and magnificent as it is and deep and steep as its valley are, Xuelian Feng remains to be graceful and elegent.

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Kongur Shan Kongur Tobe Feng Berg

With an altitude of 7649 meters, Kongur Shan lies at 75.3 0E and 38.6 0N, while Kongur Tobe Feng of 7530 meters in height is at 75.1 0 E and 38.6 0N. Both being on the main ridge line of the west end of the west Kunlun Shan Range, as the crow flies, the two peas are only 15 kilometers apart and lined to each other, just as if they are two sisters standing hand in hand. Situated in Akto County in Xinjiang, together with Muztag Feng on the south side, they belong to the West Kunlun Shan Range and are considered as a whole the three famous high peaks in the East Pamirs.

As a high peak on the West Kunlun Shan, Kongur Shan is pyramid-shaped and precipitous with an average slope of some 450. Four major ridges make the mainstay of the main peak: the North Ridge, the West Ridge, the South Ridge and the East Ridge, the slopes of which are covered with thick floating snow and has an area of snow avalanches with the height difference of 300 meters.

The second highest peak on the West Kunlun Shan, Kongur Tobe Feng, is capped by the perennial snow in the mountain, looking just like a hat worn by a herdsman. As a result, the local herdsmen call it “Kongur Tobe”, meaning a “white hat”. Being slightly inferior in height to Kongur Shan, it enjoys a nick-name “Little Kongur Feng”, but the lie of it is at least as various as that of Kongur Shan. With the high and precipitous cliffs on the north slope and the various ice and snow fields on the south slope, it is formed by four main ridges: the West Ridge, the East Ridge, the Southwest Ridge and the North Ridge.

With its dangerous and precipitons terrain, the Kongur Shan area averages 7000 meters in height and has a modern snow line of some 5900 meters and is thus well-developed in size and the land form of the glaciers. Rushing down from the waist of Kongur Shan and Kongur Tobe Feng, the Karayayrak Glacier extends dozens of kilometers, with the snow thickness reaching hundreds of me-ters. The meandering snow peaks and slopes scatter far and wide and overgrow with open and hidden crevasses, while the hanging glaciers, moreover, lies sus-pendingly above it. Chances are that they may collapse any time. For various reasons, snow avalanches frequent this area while those of small scales can be found almost all the time and those of large scales often take place. At the end of May, 1983, an earthquake of magnitude 5.5 (on the Richter scale) in this area initiated an unexpected snow avalanche with a drop of up to 1000-2000 meters when the ground moved violently and the mountains shook with the force of a thunder bolt.

Cut off by lots of mountain systems from the air current of the Indian O-cean and the Pacific Ocean, the East Pamirs, in which the two peaks dwell, has an arid climate while rainfall is brought about by the interaction between the current from the westerly-wind zone in the upper air and the cold and wet cur-rent in the polar region. The average temperature in the area of around 7500 meters above sea level can be as low as - 20℃ (the lowest being -30℃) with the greatest velocity of force 9-11 (on the beaufort scale) and the usual about force 7. Noted for the capricious weather, the mountains may encounter the wind and snow occuring simutaneously even in summer and the temperature may drop- 20℃ in a wink. So the mountaineering activities are advisable in the month from June to August.

Let’s trace the mountaineering history in this area back to the beginning of this century. In 1924, an American surveyed the Kongur Tobe Feng. In 1956, the combined Team of China and the former Soviet Union succceeded in reaching the summit of Kongur Tobe Feng for the first time in human history. On July 12, 1981, an English Mountaineering Team of four person, made the first suc-cessful ascent of the summit of Kongur Shan.

The route line to the mountain. Travel by air from Urumqi to Kashi, the place of strategic importance importance in South Xinjiang. Then advance Southwest along the Sino-Pakistan Highway to Gez. Afterwards a 50- kiolometer drive along the simply-built highway brings you to the Houz Prairie at the northeast foot of Kongur Feng. The base campsite is usually at one end of the Kuruk Glacer, which is 3600 meters above sea level. To take the route of the south slope, march forward along the Sino-Pakistan Highway to the bank of the Kalakuli He cross Kangxiwa River and trudge to the foot of the mountain.

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Tomuer Feng Berg

Tomür Feng of 7453 meters above sea level, means“Iron Mountain“ in Uygur language. At 80.1 0E and 42.0 0N, it is situated in the north of Wensu County in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and proves to be the heighest peak in the section of Tian Shan in China while the Tian Shan Mountains, 2500 kilometers in length from the east to the west, tranverses the whole of Kazakhstan and stretches to the center of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in China.

With 15 high peaks over 6000 meters and 5 over 6800 meters around it, Tomür Feng is a place of clustering peaks in the Tian Shan Mountains. Highly developed, some 509 modern glaciers here of various kinds tota an area of 2746.32 square kilometers and 350.000.000 cubic meters of water reserve, which serves as the important water resources in the vast expanse of both the south and north Tian Shan.

Deep in the inland, far away from the oceans, under the strong effect of the westerly wind in high altitudes and protected by screens of mountains, the south and north slopes differ greatly in climate, while with the humid north slope and the arid south slope, the Tomür Feng area often undergoes myriads of weather changes in the twinling of an eye- showers, a blast of strong wind and occasional hailstones. At an altitude of over 4500 meters, the temperature remains below-0℃ all the the year round with the lowest of -40℃. Only be-tween the months of July and August can the temperature rise to about-18℃, which proves to be a period of high temperature in a year. A cycle of 5-6 fine days favors a concentrated offort of mountain climbing.

Five ridges are On Tomür Feng – the West Ridge, the East Ridge, the Southwest Ridge, the Southeast Ridge and the Norteh Ridge. To the north of the North Ridge stands the second highest peak in the Tian Shan Mountains-Hantergri Feng, which is at a straight-line distance of about 20 kilometers away from Tomür Feng.

With its top like the spine of a fish, the giant, dangerous and steep Tomür Feng is covered by uninterrupted snow and often affected by the harsh climate. Glaciers can be found everywhere in abundance, and the open and hidden crevasses are so deep as to be immeasurable The natural barriers of the broken precipices, the difficulties caused by the crayons, frequent snow and ice avalanches and rolling rocks, all pose a serious threat to the mountaineers.

In 1956, the former Soviet Expedition ascented the summit of Tomür Feng from north slope along the northeast wall. In July, 1977, Liu Dayi and 26 others from China’s Science and Investigation Organization of Mountaineering conquered Tomür Feng from the south slope along the Southeast Ridge. In  1977, however, the camp site, set up at 5800 meters above sea level by the Chinese Mountaineering Team, was levelled to the ground by a snow avalanche, but fortunately nobody was in it. Moreover, in 1986, the Japanese Woman’s Team met with three snow avalanches in two days. In short, the wild havoc of snow avalanches constitutes the greatest barrier for the mountaineers.

The route line to the mountain. Travel by air or by bus from the City of Urümqi to Aksu and up northward to Wensu. After going on to Taglak, walk northward along the Qongtailan River valley to the south slope of Tomür Feng, where the mountaineering base camp site may be put up at one end of the Qong-tailan Glacier, measuring 3200 meters above sea level. Another way to the mountain is to advance for 60 kilometers from Wensu to Pochengze. After that, trudge for 40 kilometers northward along the Muerte River valley to Gaibieliqi from which you can climb Hantengri Feng and Xuelian Feng (Snow-Lotus Peak).

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